In stone carving, to cut away material,
leaving parts in relief.

Abrasive Finish
A non-reflective surface finish. An abrasive
finish may be defined by the grit size of
the abrasive.

Abrasive Hardness (Ha)
A measure of the wearing performance
of stone for floors, stair treads, and other
areas subjected to abrasion by foot traffic.
Refer to ASTM C241 and C1353.

The amount of water absorbed by a stone
is expressed as a percentage by weight. Refer
to ASTM C97.

A solid stone “springer” at the lowest
point of an arch or vault.

In masonry, any ingredient added to the mortar
or concrete to speed the curing process.

Acid Wash
A treatment applied to the face of a stone
to achieve a texture or finish that is distressed. Most acidic chemical treatments are effective only when applied to calcareous stone varieties.

Used about stone veneer,
secured and supported by adhesion of
an approved bonding material over an
approved backing.

A material other than water, aggregates,
lime or cement added to concrete or
the mortar at the time of mixing. Admixtures
are typically added to function as water
repellents, coloring agents, or to adjust
the curing rate of the concrete or mortar.

A volcanic, quartz-based stone containing a
variety of colored aggregates and pumice
in a quartz matrix. Quarried in Mexico.

A variegated, translucent, cryptocrystalline variety of quartz showing colored
bands or other markings (clouded, mosslike, etc.).

Agglomerated Stone
A human-made product composed of crushed
stone combined with resin. See also engineered stone and cultured stone.

A small mass of rock, having occurred
naturally (as in sand or gravel) or by means
of manufacture (as in a crushed aggregate
product), used either in a loose, noncohesive
state, or as an ingredient in mortar or
concrete products.

A fine-grained and translucent variety
of gypsum, generally white in color. Commonly used in decorative applications as it
can be cut and carved easily with a knife
or saw. Term is often incorrectly applied
to fine-grained marble.

Pertains to a highly basic, as opposed to
acidic, substance; for example, hydrogen
or carbonate of sodium or potassium.

Allowable Capacity
The safe load that can be resisted by a
stone anchor, determined by dividing the
ultimate capacity by the factor of safety

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